Monday 22 January 2018
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Why people can see in the dark



Find a space with total darkness and slowly move your hand from side to side in front of your face. What do you see?

If the answer is a shadowy shape moving past, you are probably not imagining things. With the help of computerized eye trackers, a new cognitive science study finds that at least 50 percent of people can see the movement of their own hand even in the absence of all light.

“Seeing in total darkness? According to the current understanding of natural vision, that just doesn’t happen,” says Duje Tadin, a professor of brain and cognitive sciences at the University of Rochester who led the investigation. “But this research shows that our own movements transmit sensory signals that also can create real visual perceptions in the brain, even in the complete absence of optical input.”

Through five separate experiments involving 129 individuals, the authors found that this eerie ability to see our hand in the dark suggests that our brain combines information from different senses to create our perceptions. The ability also “underscores that what we normally perceive of as sight is really as much a function of our brains as our eyes,” says first author Kevin Dieter, a post-doctoral fellow in psychology at Vanderbilt University.

The study seems to confirm anecdotal reports that spelunkers in lightless caves often are able to see their hands. In other words, the “spelunker illusion,” as one blogger dubbed it, is likely not an illusion after all.

For most people, this ability to see self-motion in darkness probably is learned, the authors conclude. “We get such reliable exposure to the sight of our own hand moving that our brains learn to predict the expected moving image even without actual visual input,” says Dieter.

Tadin, Dieter, and their team from the University of Rochester and Vanderbilt University reported their findings online October 30 in Psychological Science, the flagship journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

Although seeing one’s hand move in the dark may seem simple, the experimental challenge in this study was to measure objectively a perception that is, at its core, subjective. That hurdle at first stumped Tadin and his postdoctoral advisor at Vanderbilt Randolph Blake after they initially stumbled upon the puzzling observation in 2005. “While the phenomenon looked real to us, how could we determine if other people were really seeing their own moving hand rather than just telling us what they thought we wanted to hear?” asks Blake, the Centennial Professor of Psychology at Vanderbilt and a co-author on the paper.

Years later, Dieter, at the time a doctoral student working in Tadin’s Rochester lab, helped devise several experiments to probe the sight-without-light mystery. For starters, the researchers set up false expectations. In one scenario, they led subjects to expect to see “motion under low lighting conditions” with blindfolds that appeared to have tiny holes in them. In a second set up, the same participants had similar blindfolds without the “holes” and were led to believe they would see nothing. In both set ups, the blindfolds were, in fact, equally effective at blocking out all light. A third experiment consisted of the experimenter waving his hand in front of the blindfolded subject. Ultimately, participants were fitted with a computerized eye tracker in total darkness to confirm whether self-reported perceptions of movement lined up with objective measures.

In addition to testing typical subjects, the team also recruited people who experience a blending of their senses in daily life. Known as synesthetes, these individuals may, for example, see colors when they hear music or even taste sounds. This study focused on grapheme-color synesthetes, individuals who always see numbers or letters in specific colors.

Source: ScienceDaily



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